This change creates market security and opens up international markets for new technologies, which are better for the environment without compromising performance. It calls on all countries to gradually reduce their production and consumption of CFCs over the coming decades using the flexible, innovative and effective approaches adopted by the Montreal Protocol over the past three decades. Global stakeholders supported the adoption of the Kigali amendment, including most of the large U.S. companies operating in related sectors. The treaties are also remarkable in the unique utility of global action, with only 14 years signed between a fundamental scientific discovery (1973) and the international agreement (1985 and 1987). The Montreal Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances is the pioneering multilateral environmental agreement that governs the production and consumption of nearly 100 man-made chemicals, known as ozone-depleting substances (SDGs). When these chemicals are released into the atmosphere, they harm the stratospheric ozone layer, the earth`s protective shield that protects humans and the environment from the sun`s harmful rays. The protocol adopted on 15 September 1987 is to date the only UN treaty ever ratified in all the countries of the world – the 197 member states of the United Nations. The United States signed the Montreal Protocol in 1987 and was the leader in managing the treaty`s successes. Over the past 30 years, the EPA has proudly contributed to the broad coalition that has developed and implemented flexible, innovative and effective approaches to protecting the stratospheric ozone layer. In 1995, the United Nations declared 16 September as the International Day for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, also known as World Ozone Day.

The joint commitment of the Australian government and industry to the protection of the ozone layer has been critical to our success in meeting our protocol obligations. Australia and the ozone layer have also benefited from the commitment and expertise of many people from our scientific and technical organizations, industry and government. Australia acceded to the Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer in 1987 and ratified the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Initially Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1989, and then for each of the six amendments adopted between 1990 and 2016. 2012 marked the 25th anniversary of the signing of the Montreal Protocol. As a result, the Montreal Protocol Community organized a series of national, regional and international celebrations to showcase the considerable success it has had so far and to review future work. [60] Among its achievements, the Montreal Protocol was the first international treaty to meet a global environmental regulatory challenge; the first, which takes up the “precautionary principle” in its development for science-based policy-making; The first treaty, in which independent experts in atmospheric, environmental, chemical technology and economics reported directly to the parties, without treatment or censorship, under the standards of professionalism, mutual verification and respect; the first, which provides for national differences in accountability and financial capacity, in response to the creation of a multilateral technology transfer fund; The first MEA, which imposes strict reporting, trade and chemical requirements for both developed and developing countries; and the first treaty, with a financial mechanism, democratically managed by an executive council also representing industrialized and developing countries. [61] The Vienna Convention and the Montreal Protocol were ratified by 196 nations and the European Union,[12] making them the first universally ratified treaties in the history of the United Nations. [13] Because of its widespread adoption and implementation, the Montreal Protocol has been praised as an example of exceptional international cooperation, with Kofi Annan calling it “perhaps the most successful international agreement to date.” [14] [15] Given all